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Five Common Myths About Personal Injury Lawyers

If you’ve been injured in an accident, you are likely afraid and confused, struggling with medical bills, and not sure what to do next. That’s the time to call an experienced personal injury attorney, despite how lawyers are frequently depicted on TV shows and in the movies. At J&Y Law, a recently published E-book, “From Pavement to Payment”, explains the ins and outs of personal injury claims. This article is designed to dispel the common myths about personal injury attorneys.

Myth #1: Personal Injury Lawyers Cost a Lot of Money

Attorneys are often portrayed as affluent, sharply dressed individuals. Certainly, being a lawyer can be very lucrative, but the primary motivation of many individuals who practice law is to help others. While some lawyers charge consultation fees and have different fee structures for their services, the vast majority of personal injury attorneys work on a contingency fee basis.

This means that injury victims do not pay any attorneys’ fees unless they obtain compensation. While this is typically a percentage of any final settlement or jury award, the attorney assumes the costs of pursuing the claim (e.g. court filing fees, expert witness consultations, accident reconstruction specialists) if it is not successful. Ultimately, a contingency fee structure acts as an incentive for personal injury attorneys to only pursue valid legal claims and to fight to protect their clients.

Myth #2: Personal Injury Attorneys Are “Ambulance Chasers”

It is common from some people to deride personal injury attorneys as “slip and fall lawyers” or “ambulance chasers” who prey on innocent victims. It is worth noting, however, that all attorneys are governed by the rules of professional conduct established by the applicable state bar association or the courts. In particular, personal injury attorneys are generally barred from contacting injury victims immediately after an accident and must always act in the best interests of their clients. As such, an attorney cannot hold out for a higher settlement solely to generate a profit. Attorneys who violate the rules of professional conduct may face disciplinary action and could potentially have their law licenses suspended.

Myth #3: I Don’t Need a Lawyer Because I Have Insurance

Most injury claims never go to trial and are often settled through a complicated negotiation process with an insurance company. Let’s face it, however, insurance companies are in business to be profitable, and insurers often attempt to deny claims or pay as little as possible. If you have been injured in an accident, you should never go up against an insurance company alone, or even speak to anyone from an insurer without proper legal representation. Insurers can rely on teams of investigators and attorneys who have an unfair advantage over injury victims. It takes a skilled negotiator to make sure you receive the full value of your claim, and an aggressive trial attorney who will fight for you in court if need be.

Myth #4: The Party Responsible for My Injuries Will Have to Pay Out of Pocket

In a personal injury claim, the at fault party may be another driver who crashed into you, or a business that sold you a defective product. In either case, the at-fault party will not pay directly for your medical bills, lost wages or pain and suffering. Instead, the at-fault party’s insurance company will ultimately pay your settlement or award. Depending on the type of accident, there may also be more than one potential source of compensation. If you have been injured in an Uber accident, for example, your claim may involve the Uber driver’s insurer, Uber’s liability policy, as well as a third party. As mentioned above, it takes a skilled personal injury lawyer to make sure the insurer pays the full value of your claim.

Myth #5: I Don’t Need a Lawyer Because My Injuries Were Not Serious

People often fail to file a personal injury claim because they feel their injuries were minor or believe that pursuing a claim would be frivolous. Given that minor injuries can become more serious in time, the medical expenses can quickly mount. In addition, personal injury claims typically involve two different forms of compensation — economic damages and non-economic damages. The former cover actual financial losses such as lost wages, medical expenses, and property damage while the latter cover intangibles like pain and suffering. No matter the size of your case, a trustworthy personal injury attorney can help you explore all of your options.

The Takeaway

In the final analysis, personal injury attorneys are dedicated to holding negligent parties accountable and avenging the injured. Knowing that most people have little experience dealing with the legal system or negotiating with insurance companies, the way to protect your rights is to work with the right attorney, one who has a proven track record of achieving successful outcomes inside or outside of the courtroom. To learn more, check out our published E-book, “From Pavement to Payment”, available as a free digital download here.


Yosi Yahoudai


Yosi Yahoudai is a founder and the managing partner of J&Y Law Firm. Yosi is an inspired, aggressive and successful advocate for his clients, especially those who have suffered from construction accidents. He is personally committed to making a difference in his clients’ lives. Nothing makes Yosi happier than getting his clients’ lives back on track.

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Debunking Myths About Criminal Lawyers

While the media frequently highlights the importance of protecting minority groups, it still seems acceptable in our culture to denigrate criminal defence attorneys. Apparently, although individuals of particular religions, races, ethnicities, sexual orientations, gender identities or political views are perceived as worthy of protection, criminal defence lawyers are still fair game, targeted in jokes and cartoons, on talk shows and at private and public gatherings. Let’s set the record straight.

The Mythology of Criminal Defense Lawyers

The following myths are fairly persuasive which is bad on at least two fronts: (1) criminal defence lawyers suffer unfairly tarnished reputations and do not receive the respect they deserve; and (2) accused and arrested individuals feel that they are being forced to deal with unsavoury characters they should not trust when they must consult with criminal defence attorneys. The following four myths about criminal defence lawyers lay the foundation for many other misconceptions.


  1. Criminal Defense Lawyers Don’t Care About the Guilt or Innocence of Their Clients

    Criminal defence attorneys, unlike other members of the judicial system, serve their clients’ interest. Because they represent those accused of crimes, they review the government’s evidence, gather their own evidence if needed, determine its admissibility and, after a thorough investigation of the facts, determine – based on their experience – whether the government can prove their client committed the crime beyond a reasonable doubt. If the government cannot, the lawyer fights with all their power and knowledge to bring that reasonable doubt to the attention of the judge or jury.

    It’s not the defence lawyers’ job to determine guilt or innocence. Do we often have a feeling one way or the other, probably? However, any experienced defence attorney has at some point been wrong despite a strong feeling one way or the other. So you learn to question that initial instinct and not let it affect your job – which is doing everything possible to meet or exceed your client’s goals.

    What also often happens is the accused being overcharged by the government. In those instances, guilt may not be in question, but guilt as to a different, often less serious charge. Don’t forget, the criminal defence lawyers’ job is to defend their clients as ardently as they can, whatever their own personal opinion of the case. Our justice system is designed to let only the judge or jury make the final decision.

  2. Criminal Defense Attorneys Are Liars

    Talented criminal defence attorneys learn to phrase facts persuasively enough to sow doubt in the minds of judge or jury. The truth has a way of rising to the surface, however, so lying is not only unethical but unlikely to be a successful tactic. Good criminal defence attorneys are well-schooled in raising questions. Through carefully worded suggestions or propositions regarding the conditions of the arrest, the validity and purity of the evidence presented, and the possible misinterpretation of motive or need, highly skilled criminal defence attorneys have the verbal acuity to navigate the courtroom without having to resort to lying. Everyone should remember that in the United State, any accused is innocent until proven guilty in a court of law – not the other way around.

  3. Criminal Defense Lawyers Hide Evidence or Use Manufactured Evidence

    Those who believe that criminal defence attorneys routinely make up actions or verbiage to win their clients’ freedom are usually guilty of watching too many courtroom dramas. The truth is that criminal defence attorneys work exceptionally hard, examining all available data with a metaphoric microscope to find details that will aid in a positive interpretation of their clients’ actions. They have nothing to win and everything to lose by introducing false evidence that could ruin their reputation and result in disbarment and/or a prison sentence.

  4. Criminal Defense Lawyers Are Only Focused on Making Money

    There is a pervasive myth in our culture that criminal defence lawyers work at this painstaking, emotionally wearing job only because they are looking for financial reward. For this reason, a great many individuals believe that you need not seek out a criminal defence attorney if you find yourself in trouble with the law — that you might as well hire a general practice attorney or a public defender. The latter, after all, presents an advantage to you because he or she charges no fee.

Nevertheless, when your life is on the line — reputation, financial stability, freedom — you want to choose the attorney with the very best chance of winning your case. No matter how competent a general practice attorney may be, he or she only works part-time on criminal defence. Like other specialists, criminal defence lawyers become more proficient by practising exclusively in their area of specialization.

This is why engaging the services of someone who is laser-focused on criminal defence is going to be savvier, as well as more experienced in the discipline than someone who spends a large percentage of his/her time on civil litigation, bankruptcy law, or estate planning. By working at criminal defence law exclusively, a criminal defence attorney will have more finely honed skills in this area than a lawyer who plays the field.

Give yourself the Best Chance of a Successful Outcome – Make Sure to Use a Sharp Criminal Defense Attorney

It is important to remember that when your career, your freedom, and your life as you know it hangs in the balance, there is no substitute for having an accomplished criminal defence attorney at your side. You don’t want to depend on someone who occasionally works on criminal defence or someone who is fresh out of law school. As far as paying for the best criminal representation possible, there is always a way to arrange a payment plan or financing. Don’t short-change yourself in one of the most significant decisions you will ever make. The stakes are too high to settle for the store brand.


Antonio F. Valiente

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After his graduation from American University’s Washington College of Law, Miami attorney Antonio F. Valiente, Esq. began his legal career at the Miami-Dade Public Defender’s Office. There, he gained valuable insight and extensive experience over the course of six+ years. Between his time at the Public Defender’s Office & since founding Valiente Law, he’s tried close to 50 felony jury trials as lead counsel, dozens of misdemeanor jury trials, taken over one thousand depositions, & dozens of juvenile trials/adjudicatory hearings. Mr. Valiente’s experience encompasses everything from minor traffic-related misdemeanors to serious first-degree murder charges. Since 2015, Mr. Valiente has expanded his practice to handle all types of family law matters – from divorce and child custody cases to paternity and same-sex adoptions. Having the opportunity to work with & learn from some of the best and most experienced family law attorneys in the State, Mr. Valiente now provides his family law clients with the same excellent representation he is known for providing his client’s accused of state & federal criminal offenses.

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Why hiring a real estate attorney when buying a property is important?

It has been a decade, however, the horrors of the financial crisis are still fresh in everyone’s mind. After the Great Recession disrupted the housing market, there has been only a slight increase in the number of renters to owners. According to the American Community Survey data, a huge shift of homeowners to renters was noticed in 50 major US cities. The shift could be attributed to the fear people still have since the cities that witnessed larger spikes in foreclosure exhibited larger increase in the percentage of renters.

Buying a house is one of the most important decisions that you are going to take in your life because your lifetime savings are involved in it, and even if you are getting it on a mortgage you have to alter your lifestyle and save up to make the payments. Hence, you should be very careful during the purchasing process and it is better to get professional help. Usually, people prefer a real estate agent rather than a real estate lawyer probably because lawyers cannot get the perfect deal. However, the role of real estate lawyer is as crucial as an agent’s because agents do not have the expertise to tackle any legal issues that might crop up during the process.

Although you are not bound legally, here is why you should still consider hiring a real estate lawyer when purchasing a property:

1.    They are well-trained

While a real estate agent may help you in some parts of the process, a lawyer will get you through the most crucial part.

In the beginning of the process, a lawyer will help you negotiate the deal. Even though the seller’s lawyer does most of the drafting, your lawyer can review the terms and conditions and adjust them if necessary. Since experienced lawyers go through a number of contracts every day, they can easily anticipate and spot roadblocks that may become an issue at a later stage.

Buying commercial property is riskier and complex than purchasing a house. The search especially is tedious. Once a buyer decides to go through with one property, there is opportunity cost involved. In case the party backs out or the deal-breaking detail pops up, all the effort and money go down the drain. In such situations, lawyers safeguard you against any losses.

2.    Buying foreclosed property

Often a tempting opportunity crops up in the market in terms of foreclosed property. A foreclosed property is one that belongs to a bank because the homeowner ran off or voluntarily gave up the property due to the inability of making payments on time. This phenomenon was quite common during the financial crisis when a lot of people just abandoned their houses. While foreclosure spells bad news for the seller, it is a golden opportunity for buyers, especially investors since it is available at cheaper rates.

Buying foreclosed property, however, can be tricky because they might have hidden extra costs in the form of repairs or outstanding tax payments that nullifies the saving that you get on the purchase price. In case you are buying the property before foreclosure, your attorney will help you identify these costs beforehand.

The other way is to acquire it during the auction, which is perhaps the riskiest way because you don’t get a chance to analyze the property for any damages or liens. In this case, you can ask your lawyer to search for the title or any possibilities that the former owner might acquire it back.

3.    Title search

A title represents the rights an owner has on the property such as living, selling and leasing. A title deed transfers the rights from the seller to the buyer.

Title search is done to determine the rightful owner of the property. It also highlights any hidden lines that might be against the property. In case you pay with cash and do not conduct any search, you would not get to know of any issues until you try to sell the property.  Title searches are open for public and you can do that yourself. However, if you are not thorough with it, you might end up risking your deal.

Lawyers can help you conduct title searches and pinpoint any possible issues that include mortgage payments, divorce decrees, and recorded wills. An attorney can also help you with the title insurance. Unlike typical that is based on future events, title insurance protects you from unknown events, frauds or defects that already exist.

4.    Rebates

If you are a first-time property buyer, then you are entitled to property tax rebate that will offset your land transfer tax. To be eligible for this rebate, you must not have owned a home before. If you have a spouse, then the same rule applies to them as well. Also, you must start living in it within a specified time period. Usually, people are not aware of their rights. If you hire an attorney, you more likely to be informed about the rebates and a lawyer will also help you with all the necessary paperwork.

Real estate frauds and scams are common and hence you need to take all the precautions before entering a deal and risking huge investments. Hiring an attorney is probably a wise decision. However, lawyer selection should also be done carefully. The first thing you should ask a potential lawyer should be about relevant experience. The next thing you should inquire about is the fee that they charge. Lawyers either charge a flat fee or on an hourly basis. In most cases, the fees covers a few hours with the lawyer presence during the deal closing and paperwork hours.

Hiring a lawyer would add to your cost of buying a home, but it will give you a valuable thing in return, i.e. peace of mind. Also, it would save you from incurring any potential huge losses. Its just a matter of tradeoff, but as it is said one should not be penny wise and pound foolish.


Alycia Gordan


Alycia Gordan is a freelance writer who loves to read and write articles on healthcare technology, fitness and lifestyle. She is a tech junkie and divides her time between travel and writing. You can find her on Twitter: @meetalycia.

Posted in Others, Utility

Alcohol laws in India

Alcohol is one of the intoxicating substances consumed by the people around the corner of the world. Alcohols laws are in India are not taken seriously and most of the people are not aware of it. There is no uniformity in it and varies from state to state. In it, the legal age for drinking and sale ad consumption of alcohol also includes. It is because the alcohol law is included in Seventh Schedule of the constitution of India and comes under the state list. Therefore, the state can modify the alcohol laws according to their own wish. In India, the sale and consumption of alcohol usually take place in bar, restaurants, pubs, clubs, discos, etc.

The state laws for consumption and sale of alcohol do not only mentions the age of drinking but where all places the liquor should be sold. In few states, even groceries and departmental stores also sell liquor as their state laws permit the same. As being the subject of the state list, the law varies from state to state. Therefore, the legal drinking age differs from state to state in India. There is a difference between consumption age and purchasing age. Consumption age is the age when any individual can legally consume the liquor while the purchasing age is the one when an individual can purchase liquor from the license holder.

Legal Age in different states

In the state of Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Karnataka, Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Pondicherry the legal age of drinking is 18, following the state of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra (only beer), Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu has 21 years and in Punjab, Meghalaya, Haryana, Maharashtra (hard liquor), Chandigarh and Delhi, the minimum age specified is 25. There are few states, where the consumption of alcohol is illegal. They are Gujarat, Manipur, Nagaland and Lakshadweep.

Drunk- Driving Law                             

The drunken drinking law in India is governed by Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. Section 185 of the Act states that if a person while driving a motor vehicle, has a Blood Alcohol Level (BAL) more than 30 mg in terms of 100 ml of blood, the said person shall be for the first time of the offence, be imprisoned for six months, or with fine which may be extend to two thousands, or both. If, the same person commits the offence for the second time within the period of 3 years for the commission of the first offence, the level of punishment increases. The punishment for the same will be imprisonment of two years or with a fine which may extend to three thousand rupees or both.

Public Drinking

Drinking in public places is prohibited as keeping in mind the society in which we live in. but people used to drink in public at a particular concern and secretly have liquor. But when, if caught, has to pay Rs 5000 and if, any nuisance is created by an individual in a drunk mode, then the fine increases to Rs 10,000 with a jail term of three months.

Dry Days

From the calendar year, there are some specific days when the sale of liquor is prohibited and if sold on that particular day, the license of the seller can be cancelled. Republic day (26 January), Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti (2 October) are considered to be the fixed days when the sale of liquor is prohibited throughout India as they are considered as the national holidays. Therefore, these days are considered as Dry day. There are few other days which are to be considered as dry day, according to the state laws for alcohol. These days also vary from state to state.

As mentioned above, the states where the sale of liquor is illegal, these kinds of states are known as Dry State.  In these state, the sale of liquor is totally banned. These states are called liquor-less state and there are separate laws which govern them

Gujarat:  Bombay Prohibition (Gujarat Amendment Bill), 2009 was passed by the governor of Gujarat.

Manipur: by the passing of Manipur Liquor Prohibition Act, 1991, the sale and consumption of liquor is totally banned.

Nagaland:  the sale and consumption of Alcohol was banned by passing Nagaland Liquor Total Prohibition Act (NLTP), 1989

Bihar: the ban on sale and consumption is governed by Bihar Excise (Amendment) Bill, 2016


The price of the alcohol also varies from state to state. Being the cheapest in places like Delhi, Goa, Daman and Diu and expensive in the states like Maharashtra.

Constitutional perspective

Article 47 of the constitution of India states that “State shall Endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health” [1]The constitution allows the state to use the intoxicating substances and drugs for the medical purpose. It prohibits the consumption as these are injurious to health. We have seen that the legal age for consumption, possession and sale of the liquor varies from state to state, but the law not being so abiding and strict, many small children who have not crossed the majority age drinks secretly. The consumption of alcohol is not necessarily for the rich people, but the middle and poor class people also consume to a very higher extent.  This is because the laws are not so strict that people can fear of it and the availability of liquor is so frequent, that even children can purchase it easily.

Intervention of Supreme Court

In the month of December 2016, the apex court of India took an intuitive to control the crimes for drunk driving.  Supreme Court bans the sale of liquor on all national and state highways from 1st April 2017. The court further directed that no shop for the sale of liquor shall be visible from a national or state highway, shall not be situated within the distance of 500 meters from the edge of the highway, all the advertisement for the availability of liquor shall be prohibited.


We all know that alcohol is injuries to health but despite knowing this fact, we, which includes various age groups, tends to have it. The addition of the same leads to various health issues and sometimes, loss of health. So, there is various provision made by every state to take steps towards it. It is essential to cure this issue as nowadays, the youth are driven crazy by alcohol and makes their life addictive to it. This addictiveness leads to various problems. We need to understand that youth are the future of our country and we need to safeguard them by making strict laws for alcohol in India.





Sakshi Jain is currently pursuing her BLS LLB from Government Law College, Mumbai. Although she’s keen to gain knowledge and explore things going around her, her priority always stays focused on law only. Although she yearns for a career in the corporate sector, she’s quite confident regarding her capability to endure in other fields also. A passionate law student and a natural reader, she wants to complete her master degree from Harvard, Oxford, or London University.

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Evaluating whether the MFN clause can expand the definitions in the BIT

The Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause links investment agreements by ensuring that the parties to one treaty provide no less favourable a treatment to a nation than that provided under other treaties in areas covered by the clause.[1] It has often been linked as a tool of equality; however, the general consensus is that the MFN clause obligates a nation only when a treaty clause creates such an obligation.[2]

The debate as to whether the MFN clause can expand the definitions in the BIT and consequently, the scope of application of the treaties is an evolving dialogue in Investment Arbitration.[3] We shall examine the scope of the same through several recent cases. The base issue in each case boils down to a claim being made to invoke the MFN clause in order to expand the definition as per another BIT while the opposition contends that since the definition is not exhaustive and does not specify a particular investment or investor within its folds, it should not be expanded by relying on the MFN as it does not constitute a part of the treatment. In the recent times, the latter view has been upheld by several tribunals as elaborately discussed below.

In Vanessa Ventures Ltd. v. Venezuela, the claimant which was a Canadian Mining Company, sought to expand the definition of ‘investment’ by relying on the MFN clause of the Canada-Venezuela BIT. The company had entered into a concession agreement with the government of Venezuela in order to exploit copper. The dispute boiled down to the company contesting expropriation while Venezuela stated that there existed no qualifying investment as per the BIT due to non compliance with the law of the host state. The Company then attempted to employ the MFN Clause in order to apply the more favourable definition of investment as per the Venezuela- UK BIT, which was devoid of such legality requirements. The Hon’ble court outright rejected the argument and stated that the MFN treatment and protection was applicable as per the BIT only when specified. The Court held-

“The benefit of the MFN provision in Article III of the Canada-Venezuela BIT can only be asserted in respect of investments that are within the scope of Article I(f) of the Canada-Venezuela BIT to begin with. The MFN clause cannot be used to expand the category of investments to which the Canada-Venezuela BIT applies.” [4]

A similar decision was pronounced several years later in the case of Société Générale v. Dominican Republic in which the Claimant similarly sought to expand the definition of ‘investment’ as per the France-Dominican Republic BIT while Dominican Republic had contended that the indirect shareholding of the Claimant does not amount to investment for the purposes of the BIT. The Claimant attempted to invoke the MFN clause to employ the definition under the CFTA. The tribunal refused, by stating that the definition of investment was not exhaustive and the protection is as per the specific treaty-

Each treaty defines what it considers a protected investment and who is entitled to that protection, and definitions can change from treaty to treaty. In this situation, resort to the specific text of the MFN Clause is unnecessary because it applies only to the treatment accorded to such defined investment, but not to the definition of ‘investment’ itself.”[5]

Further, in the case of Metal Tech Limited v. The Republic of Uzbekistan, there was an attempt to circumvent legality requirements by seeking an expanded definition of investment by placing reliance on the MFN clause. The claimant was an Israeli manufacturer who had entered into a joint venture with two Uzbek governments whereby the latter refused to acklowledge the former’s investment as they said it was tainted with illegality. The claimant attempted to use the definition from the Greece-Uzbekistan BIT by relying on the MFN clause but the court refused to expand the definition and held-

“…one must fall within the scope of the treaty, which is in particular circumscribed by the definition of investment and investors, to be entitled to invoke the treaty protections, of which MFN treatment forms part. Or, in fewer words, one must be under the treaty to claim through the treaty.”[6]

As recent as 2013, within the folds of this debate, a new issue arose of distinguishing gateway definitions from admission requirements. In the case of Rafat Ali Rizvi v. The Republic of Indonesia[7], the claimant attempted to rely on the UK-Indonesia BIT in order to seek more favourable treatment for the purposes of admission of investments. Here, while the Claimant agreed that the definition of investment could not be sought to be expanded through the MFN clause, they sought to distinguish it from admission requirements. However, the tribunal held that while not directly definitional, the requirements detailed were conditions of access to treaty protection and had to be satisfied as prerequisites before the protections of the BIT could be invoked such as the MFN clause.

By looking at the above cases, and the contentions that have been raised in several legal forums pertaining to invoking the MFN clause in order to expand definitions, and the holdings of several tribunals, we can establish that “a definition is not a form of treatment; it simply establishes the baseline of what is entitled to MFN treatment.”[8] However, while this is the present status of the debate, whereby protection clauses cannot be invoked such as the MFN before the prerequisites are satisfied, the discussion has yet been stilted to a few definitions only. There is a scope for change if there are further jurisdictional issues raised which are necessary in nature.

In my opinion, the position on expansion of definitions is somewhat settled in reference to the terminology of ‘investors’ and ‘investment’ whereby, they have to be specifically entailed in the basic treaty to be given the meaning and expansion otherwise is not allowed. However, the growing field of investment arbitration is raising questions which might necessitate the expansion of definitions such as for application of jurisdiction.[9] This is also in line with the principle of preventing ‘treaty shopping’ and in line with the MFN clause principle of finding a legal mandate due to specific obligations entailed in the treaty. Further, I believe that the definition in itself does not qualify as treatment, rather is a condition requisite in nature to be fulfilled before seeking benefits.

The process thus needs to be viewed in the light of a cost benefit analysis of the losses of the treaty shopping as compared to the benefits of an extension of substantive protections and should be evaluated and applied where the benefits outweigh the costs.

[1] OECD (2004), “Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment in International Investment Law”, OECD Working Papers on International Investment, 2004/02, OECD Publishing., Article 5, Draft articles on Most-Favoured-nation clauses, Yearbook of the international Law Commission, 1978, Vol. II, Part Two, p. 21.

[2] Oppenheim , International Law (Harlow: R. Jenning & A. Watts, 1992), pp. 1326-1338.

[3]  Louise Barber, “Cart Before the Horse: Can MFN Clauses Expand the Key Definitions in Investment Treaties?,” Kluwer Arbitration Blog, last modified 2014,

[4] Vanessa Ventures Ltd. v. Venezuela, (ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/04/6, Award, 16 January 2013).

[5] Société Générale v. Dominican Republic, (LCIA Case No UN 7927, Award on Preliminary Objections to Jurisdiction, 19 September 2008).

[6] Metal Tech Limited v. The Republic of Uzbekistan, (ICSID Case No. ARB/10/3, Award, 4 October 2013).

[7] Rafat Ali Rizvi v. The Republic of Indonesia, (ICSID Case No. ARB/11/13, Award on Jurisdiction, 16 July 2013).

[8] Metal Tech Limited v. The Republic of Uzbekistan, (ICSID Case No. ARB/10/3, Award, 4 October 2013).

[9] United Nations Organization , “Final Report on the Most Favoured Nation Clause,” United Nations – Office of Legal Affairs, last modified 2009,




Currently pursuing her undergraduate degree from the Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar, Sanskriti Sanghi possesses a flair for writing and a yearn to learn. Being avidly interested in Antitrust law, Intellectual Property Rights, Children’s Rights and International Relations, she seeks to engage in and discuss multiple disciplines which keep her constantly discovering. She believes in immersing and involving herself in various activities and letting the passion for each of those interests allow her to deliver her best.

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Legal education: From being a Barrister to Wakil to Lawyer

“If we desire respect for the law, we must first make the law respectable.”

– Louis D. Brandeis

Law is a very old prestigious field in the domain of education. Many freedom fighters of the country were from Legal fraternity. Mahatma Gandhi himself was a barrister who studied from South Africa. The first president of India Dr.Rajendra Prasad was himself a lawyer. PanditJawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India was also a barrister. So the kings as well as the king maker were lawyers.  Legal education has seen many ups and downs. There was a time when people were passionate towards this field and many bright students optedit as a career but there were also times when it was taken as an alternative. Judiciary is an independent body. It is known for its fierce attitude and bold decisions. Every citizen has to abide by its decision no matter they are the king or the pauper.  But the question is if law is such a respectable field then: why there is scarcity of good lawyers although courtrooms are filled with lawyers? Why there is less number of judges and there is vacancy for more? Why lawyers are not respected so much and they had to struggle to excel in society? And why the charm of Law was endangered?

Before independence legal education shares a very important place in the history of India. India has produced many renowned lawyers of all time in the field of criminal law. Many renounced lawyers who belong from non-legal field opted law as a profession and excel in it. In those days they were called barristers because they pursue law from abroad from the prestigious universities such as Cambridge, Oxford, Harvard etc. They were seen with respect and honour. With the independence the charm of law slightly got lowered as now the country needed more of the Technocrats than lawyers. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru emphasised on technocrats, as the free nation needs some repair work which was damaged by the British. There comes an era when engineering gained much more importance and it rose to its prominence. Law was looked to be an alternative choice for the people. Students who were not good in science and quite weak were forced to join law. Slowly a concept of Wakil came. People acquired their degree from any college and start to practice in court having no knowledge at all. Only in a few families law was seen as a respectable career since it was the profession of forefather and a legacy being followed in family. Law is something which needs proper guidance, discipline, clear concept and passion. If one is passionate about law then s/he is unstoppable. The courtrooms of 21st century are going through this phase of lawyers. High Courts are full wakil who don’t even know the jurisdiction as well the clear matter related with the case. Judges scold them and make fun of them. Even many renounced judges and lawyers have said that there is lack of good lawyers in the country. Ram Jetmalani, the renounced and respectable senior advocate of the country has said that hard work is the key to success in law.As a result a need was felt to bring back the lost charm of the law and National Law Universities as well as many Private universities and colleges came into being.It was Prof. N.R MadhavaMenon which changed the outlook of Legal Education and came with 5 years undergraduate course so that students after 12th can pursue this field. A specialised universities concerning with law all over the country came into being. The main idea of coming with NLUs is to give quality students to the country. Even private universities have come forward with such intention. There are private universities which are giving excellent opportunities to the students which are not available even in good NLUs. The concept of moots is evolved to improve the advocacy skills. Moreover there are other extra activities like debates, presentation etc. to build confidence in students.It can be said that the future of law is in safe hands. Earlier there were few NLUs like NLSIU Bangalore, NALSAR Hyderabad etc. but now there are almost 18 universities opened all over the India. Because of NLUs All India entrance exam is conducted known as CLAT and students are enrolled based on merit in various NLUs. Traditionally Legal education in India was conductedthrough the medium of non-specialized universities of India which granted law degree like any other graduated degree. Earlier there were only courtroom lawyers but now many doors are opened for a law student. S/He is not restricted just to courtroom but can opt for jobs in corporate or banking sector or firms.

Law has its own charm and elegance. Law is a synonym for justice and lawyers are the interpreter. A lawyer is a student forever no matter s/he become a judge or works in a corporate sector. It only needs patience and sheer hard work. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing which is true for law. As Martin Luther King, Jr has said “Law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress.”




It’s always being a difficult task for me to write something about myself but to start with, I am a law student studying in Chanakya National Law University. I love to write the articles based on law and it’s legal aspect. I believe in having a colourful life rather than being black and white. Apart from law, I love drawing especially cartoon characters but I made only for myself that too when I really feel like. I am active in social media quite a lot. I love experimenting such as in the field of making deserts, I love making cakes in the free time. This is my short and sweet bio which is not sufficient to describe myself but at least it can give some idea about me.