This article has been written by Neeti Rana. Neeti is a recent graduate from Law College, Uttaranchal University.
Juvenile delinquency takes place in various forms and very in degree, frequency, duration and seriousness and involves different forms like drug addiction, sex offences, predatory acts etc. Delinquency like other social behaviour has complex roots. The child because of his being future of the nation should be given atmosphere conducive to his being a responsible and sensible citizen.
It is now matter of common knowledge that a good number adult criminals committed their first offence in their childhood, long before their first conviction as an adult offender. Delinquency as a social disease cannot be treated without knowing about its causes. The subject of crime unlocks such powerful emotions that it is most difficult to obtain objective or scientific data on the incidence of crime and on the circumstances under which the crime rate rises and falls.
Types of Juvenile delinquencies
BIOLOGICAL– Emotional disturbance and discomfort may cause weakness and discomfort and may result in school truancy or dislike for work. Efficiency is generally weak and adversely affects his ability to work and he depends on others which may lead to antisocial behaviour. A person with speech problem is pitted or laughed at in the society. Due to this, feeling of inferiority may be developed which may lead to a desire to make up in criminal acts. A person who is possessed excessive physical strength and his mental trait being uncultured and not properly channelized, probability of his committing an act of offence becomes higher.
SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL – Migration of persons to new places where they are strangers offers them opportunity for crime as chances of detection are minimized considerably. In a dynamic society, social change is an inevitable phenomenon. The impact of modernization urbanization and industrialization in a rapidly changing society may sometimes result in social disorganization and this may led to culture conflicts between different values of different sections of society. The immigration affects the crime rate of a place. Culture conflict between inhabitants and immigrants results in deviant behaviour.
A child who is brought up in a broken family is likely to face an easy prey to criminality. The lack of parental control over children due to death, divorce, or desertion of parent or their ignorance or illness may furnish soothing ground for children to resort to criminal acts. The frequent quarrels amongst parents, undue domination of one over the other, step-motherly treatment with children, frequent births in the family, immorality of parents, misery, poverty of unwholesome family atmosphere unemployment, low income or parent’s continued long absence from home may led to the child to do commit the offence in the society. Some are the same factor which emanates from the family background.
PSYCHOLOGICAL – The offender’s mental traits, peculiarities to abilities play a very important role in the determination of delinquency. It is the mind that controls it; the mind is designed, defective or feeble. Bad schooling which includes cruel treatment by teachers creates hatred and frustration among the school going children which forces them to leave the school and take the path of delinquency. Use of drugs by the youngsters in these days is very common. Due to drug- addiction the children starts committing small offences. Intoxication results in assault on other family members particularly females and children which disturbs family discipline. The lack of discipline in family is highly hazardous to the child. The child should be checked whenever it is necessary otherwise they may indulge commission of offence. Bad Company ,adolescent instability , early sex experiences, mental conflicts, excessive social suggestibility, love of adventure ,motion pictures ,school dissatisfaction, poor recreation, street life ,vocational dissatisfaction ,sudden impulse, physical condition are also factors which turns a child into a juvenile offenders.
In order to prevent Juvenile Delinquents we have to deal not only with maladjusted children and youths whose difficulties bring them before law, but also with those who while not violating laws, are disturbing others in school and in the street. Prevention is necessary for the street. If they are not prevented then they would become the habitual offenders so their prevention is necessary. They make mistakes and become excited and fail to behave according to legitimate expectations. Over –crowding in the cities, coming up of slums, cinema, smuggling, gambling and drinking are some of the contributory factors responsible.
The most effective way to prevent juvenile delinquency has indisputably been to assist children and their families early on. Delinquency Prevention is the board term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal or other antisocial, activity. Increasingly, governments are recognizing the importance of allocating resources for the prevention of delinquency. Prevention services include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counselling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering.